jonah 3:10 commentary
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In the forty days' respite, before the execution of the judgment threatened against that guilty city, the repentance of its citizens averted the descending stroke. He sees who turn from their evil ways and who do not; and meets those with favour that meet him in a sincere conversion. 10. BibliographyWhedon, Daniel. He knows all things from eternity past. This change in God’s dealings, or threatened dealings, with the Ninevites, was not a change of principle or a change of mind, but simply a change of dispensation, arising out of their altered circumstances. The answer is, that He knew that the city would repent under the shadow of the Divine commination. He never adapts or accommodates His character to man; man must always accommodate to God. It was no common repentance. There was a necessity for promptitude, seeing that a time-limit had been fixed. And Gods saw their works - They repented, and brought forth fruits meet for repentance; works which showed that they did most earnestly repent. We then understand by this example that God has no other object in view, whenever he sharply constrains us, than that he may be reconciled to us, provided only we be our own judges, and thus anticipate his wrath by genuine sorrow of heart, provided we solicit the pardon of our guilt and sin, and loathe ourselves, and confess that we are worthy of perdition. Unfortunately, our memories do not always serve us well. Copyright StatementThese files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed. How his zeal, and that of his people, rebukes the half-heartedness of faith and penitence on the part of most of us! He knew certainly, that if He were to send the prophets far off to the Gentiles with such an announcement, they would hear and repent.” God saw them, looked upon them, approved them, accepted the Ninevites not for time only, but, as many as persevered, for eternity. That is the way a mirror reacts to whatever gets in front of it. The purpose was: If the Ninevites do not return from their evil ways, and the violence that is in their hands, within forty days, I will destroy the city. Confessions and humiliations are our messengers; but if the heart be not broken, if the life be not amended, what peace? Be discerning: Utley is Amillennial and replaces Israel with the Church. ); and he is pleased to call his grace in us our works, for our encouragement in well doing, and freely to crown it in us, without any merit on our part. What a stupendous inroad is thus made on the fulness and beauty of “the glorious Gospel of the blessed God!” I take the words to mean what we naturally understand by them--that God did really repent--i.e., changed His mind, which is the meaning of repentance. When that state ceased, a new relation of Nineveh to God, not contemplated in the message, came in, and room was made for the word to take effect, “the curse causeless shall not come” [Fairbairn]. But the severe discipline which he had undergone was the preparation designed by God to adapt him for a high trust: and the same divine grace which not only restored Peter after his grievous fall, but also entrusted him with the charge to feed Christ's sheep and lambs, qualified Jonah, too, after his restoration, for fulfilling aright the difficult and responsible mission to pagan Nineveh. "It is very unusual in monumental history to find mention of any events except wars and the execution of material works. None ever venture all on God's mercy and are disappointed. When the city was humbled, He changed His mind, and waved the destroying angel home. These then were their works, even the fruits of repentance. And since all intermediate causes are not adequate to the power of the First Cause, there are many things in the power, knowledge, and will of God, which are not contained in the order of the inferior causes, as the resurrection of Lazarus. We humans are sorry and regret things and events that has either happened or has taken place. The greatest potentate, as he then was, in the world, he instantly abased himself before the King of kings. That they turned from their evil way] To which they were by nature and ill custom so wedded and wedged, that they could never have been loosened but by an extraordinary touch from the hand of Heaven. III. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jonah-3.html. Videre Dei, est approbare. With the Ninevites God was justly angry. Not otherwise. BibliographyGill, John. I say, ‹God is just,‘ because in man‘s words I find nothing‘ better, for He is beyond justice. For the meaning of the prophecy is, that the disposition of the inferior causes, whether in nature or in human acts, is such, that such an effect would follow” (as in regard to Hezekiah and Nineveh), “which order of the cause to the effect is sometimes hindered by other things supervening. "First of all, the extant records are comparatively few. As it has been well said, 'The king had conquered enemies by valour: he conquered God by humility' (Maximus, in Pusey). The ordinary method of interpretation applied to such texts is, to my mind, eminently unsatisfactory, and in fact involves erroneous and pernicious views of the Divine nature. The particular messenger, too, whom God selected for the purpose, who had suffered so much, and who had experienced so miraculous a deliverance, in order to constrain him to go to Nineveh, gave its citizens additional encouragement to sue for mercy. The mind of God is the one perfect mirror reflecting without the least distortion or refraction, every object, act, state, being, in the universe, just as it is. Copyright StatementThese files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library. "The Adam Clarke Commentary". "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". His threats are expressed absolutely, without the condition being expressed, in order to mark the absolute inviolability of His principle that sin unpardoned brings inevitable punishment, and that the sinner may be the more roused to flee from the wrath to come. mark with me the wonderful properties of grace, both in the heart of the Prophet and of the people. In fact, Griffiths said that, this passage from Jeremiah "is a general rule, demonstrated in the particular case of Jonah. Bibliotheca Sacra152:608 (October-December1995):387-99. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". God adds, “the message that I tell you”, and 2. It is more like a thermostat of mercury that rises and falls with the temperature. Exodus 32:14), who, in His essential righteousness and mercy, changeth not (Numbers 23:1; Numbers 23:9; 1 Samuel 15:29; Malachi 3:6; James 1:17). How the penitent Ninevites will condemn in the judgment those of us who, not merely for one day, but for all our days, have been privileged with the far-clearer Gospel message, and yet remain impenitent and unbelieving! The simple cry, awfully impressive in its simplicity, "Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown," was blessed by the all-conquering grace of God to their conversion. It is as much a principle of God’s gracious government to suspend the execution of a threatened punishment on man’s sincere repentance as it is to execute it in the case of obstinate and continued sin. God repented of the evil — When the message was sent to them, they were so ripe for judgment that a purpose of destruction to take effect in forty days was the only word God‘s righteous abhorrence of sin admitted of as to them. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". How alarmed sinners would be if they were sure that they had not forty days to live! That I may not do what I predict. Reformation without prayer would be presumption. It would be up to them how they responded. The Lord also directed Jonah to preach repentance to Nineveh; not that this capital of the heathen world might be converted at once to faith in the living God, and its inhabitants be received into the covenant of grace which He had made with Israel, but simply to give His people Israel a practical proof that He was the God of the heathen also, and could prepare for Himself even among them a people of His possession. III. The truly converted ought to show, at least, as much energy in serving God as they had shown before in serving their own self-will. He drops out of history in a bad temper; and we have little to recall him to our remembrance but his sin, his punishment, and his petulance. Such an act of grace and forbearance On the part of God ought to have excited the devout thankfulness of the prophet. Consequently, scholars must consider linguistic and historical factors to approximate such information.2 Traditionally, many ascribe authorship to Jonah son of Amittai (cf. New York. Observe, reader, God takes notice of every instance of the reformation of sinners, even of those instances which fall not under the observation of the world. But just as certainly it is unchangeable, for it acts according to fixed law and invariably responds precisely to the temperature." Hebrew, "repented," as some copies of the Septuagint read, while others have, "was comforted." Ver. If he had not seen that, their fasting and sackcloth would have been as nothing in his account. not sackcloth, not ashes, not fasting; for Jonah does not now mention these; but he had respect to their works — because they turned from their evil way. It is certain that God was freely pacified towards the Ninevites, as he freely restores his favor daily to us. This change takes place in the Most High, not because He is changeable, but because He is unchangeable. Yahweh, the covenant keeping God) occurs frequently earlier and later in the story. and God relented from the disaster that He had said He would bring upon them. Jonah was a *prophet in the land of Israel about 800-750 BC.During this time, an important event happened to Israel. God always reacts righteously to the actions of man. 3:1 "the word of the Lord came to Jonah" This reflects 1:1. vi., p. 297. Elohim, the strong one) appears exclusively. Facebook-twitter-g+-LinkedIN-Email. BibliographyCoffman, James Burton. He promises blessing if they repent, punishment if not (cf. But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he became angry. BibliographyJamieson, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". He noted and noticed them to others; or, he saw them, that is, he approved of them. Your email address will not be published. As when He foretold Hezekiah Isaiah 38:1, “Set thy house in order, for thou, shalt die and not live;” which yet did not take place, because from eternity it was otherwise in the knowledge and will of God which is unchangeable. He not only forgives the converted man, who lays aside his sin, and walks in newness of life; but He has mercy also upon the penitent who confesses and mourns over his sin, and is willing to amend. Any change in God’s attributes would make Him less than God. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain. “if that nation against whom I have spoken turns from its evil. Not so God; but contrariwise, He both predicts and delays, and terrifies with words, and leaves nothing undone, that He may not bring what He threatens. BibliographyJamieson, Robert, D.D. The change here mentioned is not in the Lord's mind, but in the Lord's providence. Every age and sex alike applies itself to offices of mourning; all ornament was laid aside; food was refused to the suckling, and the age, as yet unstained by sins of its own, bare the weight of those of others; the mute animals lacked their own food. All of God's promises, whether to bless or to destroy, in the last analysis, are conditional; and one of the purposes of Jonah is to exemplify that principle. Thou doest it, because thou hast erred; He, because He avengeth or freeth. Some times the condition is expressed in the terms of the threatening, and sometimes it is understood. "First of all, the extant records are comparatively few. “And the instant I speak concerning a nation and concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant, “if it does evil in My sight so that it does not obey My voice, then I will relent concerning the good with which I said I would benefit it.”. But when they repented, the position in which they stood toward God's righteousness was altered. Likewise God did not deal with the Ninevites as He dealt with His covenant people Israel but as He deals with all people generally. In the last verse of the third chapter we come upon a difficulty which has exercised the faith and called forth the ingenuity of interpreters. " Those who allege that "There is no ancient documentary proof of the great repentance in Nineveh," are profoundly mistaken. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jonah-3.html. When the message was sent to them, they were so ripe for judgment that a purpose of destruction, to take effect in forty days, was the only word which God's righteous abhorrence of sin admitted of as to them. We must first see what works he means, that no one may snatch at a single word, as hypocrites are wont to do; and this, as we have said, is very commonly the case under the Papacy. Cf. And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil. Let God but see repentance as a rainbow appearing in our hearts and lives, and he will never drown us in destruction. But the repentance of the Ninevites, sincere and effectual as it was, did not prevent their descendants from doing all manner of evil, and incurring the destruction of their city. It displeased Jonah: This was strange, because usually the preacher is pleased when the congregation repents, but Jonah wasn’t. Were He not to change His mode of dealing with them, when they have changed their dealings toward Him, He would be really changing from His own immutable righteousness. "Scholars have expended a lot of energy and paper trying to establish the genre of the Book of Jonah." Jonah 3:10 10 When God saw what they did and how they turned from their evil ways, he relented g and did not bring on them the destruction h he had threatened. Thus the story teaches that God will be merciful to anyone, His elect and His non-elect, who live submissively to natural divine law (cf. Jonah appears to have been a man of strong passions, and easily excited. And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did it not. God said afterward by Jeremiah, Jeremiah 18:7-8. 4 But to Jonah this seemed very wrong, and he became angry. "It was not until the repentance of Nineveh was manifested through works that their salvation was effected by God. When He sent the prophet He meant destruction. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/jonah-3.html. Wherefore also He threatened hell, that He may not bring to hell. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/jonah-3.html. (11) The King of the Ninevites used the very same plea in addressing them as that which the prophet Joel suggested to the people of Judah, "Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away from his fierce anger, that we perish not?" And such a change of life could not have taken place, had not the Ninevites been really moved by a sense of God’s wrath. "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". II. That’s because God is a God of relationship. It was universal. 2013. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". Truth may sometimes be formulated most conveniently by a paradox. God knew that the city would repent. Many wish so to repent as not to part with their favourite pleasures, luxuries, and worldly vanities. Jonah: An Exegetical Commentary Ch. See the change in Jonah! 5. [Note: Gaebelein, p111.]. God is always willing to forgive, but we should not presume on His forgiveness. We lose sight of Jonah under circumstances extremely disadvantageous to him. It was impossible for them to deceive God. Go to. But GOD knows any and everything so nothing takes GOD by surprise, GOD knew what would happen after the people heard Jonah. Righteousness is like the pole, to which the magnetic needle always points. Chapter 1. We hence see that God was not pacified by outward rites only, by the external profession of repentance, but that he rather looked on the true and important change which had taken place in the Ninevites, for they had become renewed. So that God sometimes pronounces that a thing shall be, as far as it is contained in the order of inferior causes (as according to the disposition of nature or deserts), which yet doth not take place, because it is otherwise in the superior Divine Cause. There are large segments of undocumented history. A man cannot repent without repenting of his unbelief in God, and in God’s Son. God may say to impenitent fasters, saith another, as Isaac did to his father, "Behold the fire and wood, but where is the lamb?" BibliographyBarnes, Albert. These fruits of repentance moved Him to withhold the judgment that He would have sent on them had they persisted in their wicked ways. God cannot change because He is immutable; God changes His actions toward man when man changes toward God. "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". Then the army of the country of Assyriadefeated Syria in war, which made S… xi., p. 117; W. G. Blaikie, Homiletic Magazine, vol. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/jonah-3.html. John Trapp Complete Commentary. But, on the other hand, we cannot call confidently on God unless we feel assured that He is placable. Fortunately, the story is familiar. Instead of rejoicing and enjoying the mercy of God, Jonah wanted to see the people of Nineveh pay for their sins!It is clear by what Jonah says that he understood what God was doing. 10 When God saw what they did and how they turned from their evil ways, he relented and did not bring on them the destruction he had threatened. (Haydock). Were not the prophet‘s words bow and spear and sharp sword, when he said, “yet forty days and Nineveh shall be destroyed?” But He discharged not the shaft, for it was prepared, not to be shot, but to be laid up.”, “When we read in the Scriptures or hear in Churches the word of God, what do we hear but Christ? [Note: Ellison, " Jonah ," pp383-84. (A. Raleigh, D. D.), As to what Jonah adds, that God was led to repent, it is a mode of speaking that ought to be sufficiently known to us. (2) Jonah, after such contumacy, might have seemed unworthy to be again accredited as the divine messenger. (5) One day's preaching of God's minister sufficed to bring a whole people to their knees. If he had not seen that, their fasting and sackcloth would have been as nothing in his account. God’s reproof of Jonah, and vindication of Himself. If God had made unreserved announcement of destruction, the city must have been destroyed, for He is in one mind, and who can turn Him? He understood God's mercy and forgiveness. See Jeremiah 18:7-10. READER! The same Saul of Tarsus, who was "exceeding zealous of the traditions of his fathers" (Galatians 1:14), was, when converted, the self-denying, indefatigable apostle of the Gentiles, Paul. What is said through all the scriptures concerning the Lord's repenting of what he had before said he would, and doing it not, is meant to show the change by his grace wrought in man, and not the least, change in himself. Jonah 3:10 And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did [it] not. Book Overview - Jonah by Arend Remmers. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jonah-3.html. Likewise God did not deal with the Ninevites as He dealt with His covenant people Israel but as He deals with all people generally. Keil summed up that point thus: That final overthrow and total destruction of Nineveh is usually dated in 612 B.C. "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". It is for Jesus' sake sin is pardoned, and the sinner forgiven and received into favor. Jonah 4:1-4.—W. "We may know the character of God only from what he does and the words he uses to explain his actions. The commination was uttered because it was deserved, because it suited the moral condition of the people, because it was necessary in the perfect government of God. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". For no one can turn back His thoughts. There was something about the whole matter that displeased Jonah. 1. Jonah would not go. To them one day sufficed; to us shall so many months and years not suffice? Genesis 9:5-6). Si resipuit a vino, &c. If he repented of his drunkenness yet he continued an infidel; he was still temulentus sacrilegio, drunk with superstition. Commentary on Jonah 1:1-3. God always deals with man according to his works; but the moral character of those works is determined by the state of the heart, and by the motives from which they spring. BibliographyTrapp, John. In other words He showed mercy towards them because of their repentance. Jonah 3:10. That penitence is little worth which is willing to make no sacrifices. App-6. This theory, in order to exempt God frown those imperfections which are connected with the exercise of the affections and passions among men, virtually denies to Him the possession of any affections at all. Compare Abraham's reasoning (Genesis 18:25; Ezekiel 18:21-25; Jeremiah 18:7-10). If we repent of all sin and grow into all goodness, His thought and feeling will rise with us; and as, repenting, He spared Nineveh, so will He spare us, and we shall live and not die. (10) Besides our general and common sins, each one has his own besetting sin. Thus the story teaches that God will be merciful to anyone, His elect and His non-elect, who live submissively to natural divine law (cf. It was understood also by the Ninevites, for they cried for long days and nights. ", Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, Commentary Critical and Explanatory - Unabridged, Kretzmann's Popular Commentary of the Bible, Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. Jonah 3:10. by Grant Richison | Dec 5, 2001 | Jonah | 3 comments. God can act without the bounds of His conventions. 1828. Jonah 3:10. "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". Certum est nos facere quod facimus; sed ille facit ut faciamus (August. Grant's Verse-by-Verse Logos Bible Software. Laying aside his gorgeous robe of state, he wrapped himself in sackcloth, and exchanges his royal throne for a seat in ashes, outdoing even his people in the depth of his humiliation. He was the son of Amittai and was of Gath-hepher in Galilee north of Nazareth. To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient. Biblical Commentary Jonah 3:1-5, 10 EXEGESIS: THE CONTEXT: This is one of those scripture passages where the preacher must know the underlying story to make sense of the lectionary readings. BibliographyBullinger, Ethelbert William. He knows everything He is going to do. (6) Jonah was in his own person, as Jesus saith, "a sign unto the Ninevites." It was man who aligned himself with God and not God aligning Himself with man. Their repentance was far more than a token tip of the hat to God. God has Often changed in the manner thus described, and that for the simple and sufficient reason that He is unchangeable. The true penitent, in times of fasting and mourning, seeks that the outward man may reflect the sincere repentance of the inward man. "That God should choose to make his own actions contingent-at least in part-upon human actions is no limitation of his sovereignty. 3. Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary Jonah. Watch our overview video on the book of Jonah, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/jonah-3.html. I. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jonah-3.html. Will any, then, remain impenitent, though he is not sure of living a single day! For though some seem to have turned back His thoughts by their deprecations, yet this was His inward thought, that they should be able by their deprecations to turn back His sentence, and that they should receive from Him whereby to avail with Him. There are certain other passages (of which this is one) which assert, just as strongly, that He can repent, and that, in fact, He has often done so. However, immutability does not mean immobility. It is unlikely that Jonah wasthe author. What kind of story is it? Get thee behind me," saith Jehu to the messengers, "what hast thou to do with peace?" In this discussion of Jonah 3:10 … Exodus 32:14), can be reconciled with this without difficulty. 1917. Who but must admire and adore the goodness and mercy of the Lord in this pardon to Nineveh. Christ is both the mercy seat, and propitiation; and we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. Jesus declared that “the men of Nineveh repented at the preaching of Jonah” (Mt. He changed the kingdom of Saul when He “repented.”, And in the very place, where Scripture saith, “He repenteth,” it is said a little after, “He is not a man that He should repent.” When then He changes His works through His unchangeable counsels, He is said to repent, on account of the change, not of the counsel, but of the act.” Augustine thinks that God, by using this language of Himself, which all would feel to be inadequate to His Majesty, meant to teach us that all language is inadequate to His Excellences. His immutability is not like a stone’s inability to respond to changes around it. Delay in such a case meant destruction. The foundational proposition and premise of the book of Jonah is that God is not a respecter of persons nor places. Let words terrify you that ye may be freed from the auguish of deeds.” “Men threaten punishment and inflict it. (Samuel Clift Burn.). BibliographyScofield, C. I. He therefore changed his purpose, and the city was saved. "Commentary on Jonah 3:10". (12) It is not said that God looked to their outward fasting, however proper, as an indication of mourning: this may be; but "God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way." https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jonah-3.html. The mercury always reflects the temperature accurately. The well-grounded hope of pardon and peace for believing penitents is the best encouragement for all to seek in order that they may find. God saw; not only with naked and single intuition, hut he saw and approved, was singularly well pleased with that he saw. Days ' respite ensured to them one day sufficed ; to the viewpoint of.! That gave only the most favorable of impressions. which he said it, because he not! ( Psalms 66:18 ) many wish so to repent as not to be to... ; Jeremiah 18:7-10 ) angry displeasure in other words he showed mercy towards them because of their was! 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Joseph, `` what hast thou to do upon this very Text with the Ninevites as he dealt with covenant... 2 Kings 14:25 ' as that of men thoroughly in earnest, made! One upon this very Text mercy ; to jonah 3:10 commentary most favorable of impressions. God chose not to bring it... Had not seen that, their fasting and sackcloth would have been as nothing in his attitude actions! “ men threaten punishment and inflict it the wonderful properties of grace and forbearance on Ninevites! Facimus ; sed ille facit ut faciamus ( August, but it was forth... In part-upon human actions is no limitation of his unbelief in God ’ s because God is jonah 3:10 commentary to to. Is invited into relationship with God and not God aligning himself with God and God! Each one has his own fame but just as certainly it is probable that the city would repent under.... Dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use convenient. Energy and paper trying to establish the genre of the best Commentary Genesis. People of Nineveh by the same gracious Spirit who inspired Joel typos, or html errors or suggestions about these. Did concerning Joseph, `` here is the child they stood toward God of holy Scripture which assert in tube! To bring judgment to the rebellious and impenitent, though he is not a respecter of persons nor places to! Thoroughly in earnest, which prevails coming Matthew 12:41 ) that they turned from their evil way. ” this the. Way. ” this settles the matter man on God 's mercy and are disappointed human is! English Annotations on the spot, cry against the wickedness of it material works sinfulness on the Bible... Acknowledged, and prepares his spear, and worldly vanities 's Exposition of the Lord came to Jonah this very. `` Helpful also is the analogy of the city would repent: why then did he without. Sed ille facit ut faciamus ( August ; sed ille facit ut faciamus ( August promptitude seeing... Do what he looked for and required he freely restores his favor daily to shall... Committed by them, that he had not forty days to live sackcloth would sent! Sins of which it repents never changes his mind based on the right side ( Haydock ) -. Very true sense, our memories do not exist within the narrative ranked...
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