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Turkey's desire to have a Deputy Secretary General and Cyprus' rejection of it, resulted in months of negotiation until Cyprus finally approved the creation of a sixth Deputy Secreaty General post assigned to a Turkish citizen. Because of the Mediterranean region's sunny climate and historic sites, tourism has long been a large part of its economy. A secretariat with a separate legal status and its own statutes was created. The question of an enhanced co-ownership of the process has repeatedly been brought up over the last years. Rather, it is a label referring to the culinary trends shared by a diverse array of peoples that live in the region around the Mediterranean Sea. 28 May: Governance & Financing Water in the Mediterranean area, UfM Ministerial on Strengthening the role of women in society – September 2013, UfM Ministerial on Transport – November 2013, UfM Ministerial on Energy – December 2013, UfM Ministerial on Industrial cooperation – February 2014, UfM Ministerial on Environment and climate change – May 2014, UfM Ministerial on Digital Economy – September 2014, UfM Ministerial on Blue Economy – November 2015, UfM Ministerial on Regional Cooperation and Planning – June 2016, UfM Ministerial on Employment and Labour – September 2016, UfM Ministerial on Energy – December 2016, UfM Ministerial on Urban Development – May 2017, UfM Ministerial on Strengthening the Role of Women in Society – November 2017, UfM Ministerial Conference on Trade – 19 March 2018. "[60], Nevertheless, at the beginning of November 2010 the peace talks stalled, and the Egyptian co-presidents conditioned the occurrence of the summit on a gesture from Israel that would allow the negotiations to resume. Greece and Italy have ancient ruins, such as the Parthenon, that reveal what classical architecture was like. The Conference provided a regional dialogue forum where the 250 participants from more than 30 countries stressed the need to invest in the essential contribution of women as a response to the current Mediterranean challenges. [34], However the European Commission and Germany were more cautious about the project. A pro-government protester at a demonstration in Algiers, February 2011. East Germany was under a Communist government, and West Germany was a capitalist democracy. Via the process of labelisation, the UFM supports projects that address common regional challenges that are likely to have a direct impact on the lives of citizens. Mediterranean Europe's history shaped its culture by determining where languages are spoken and where religions are practiced today. Trade, 9 December 2009, Brussels (Belgium). In September 2010 the Anna Lindh Foundation published a report called "EuroMed Intercultural Trends 2010". 27 November 2017 Ministers from the 43 Member countries of UfM gathered in Cairo at the 4th UfM Ministerial Conference on "Strengthening the Role of Women in Society"[100] to agree on a common agenda to strengthen the role of women in the Euro-Mediterranean region. After World War II, Italy became a republic but has had dozens of governments since then. "[22], The Paris summit was considered a diplomatic success for Nicolas Sarzoky. This program has been active since 1998, and has been involved in programs to identify the cultural heritages of Mediterranean states, promote their preservation, and educate the peoples of partner countries about their cultural heritages.[16]. Security and stability in the Mediterranean; Agreeing on shared values and initializing a long-term process for cooperation in the Mediterranean; Achieving mutually satisfactory trading terms for the region's partners, the "region" consisting of the countries that participated; Establishing a complementary policy to the, economic – to work for shared prosperity in the Mediterranean Region, including the Association Agreements on the bilateral level, political – promotion of political values, good governance and democracy, cultural – cultural exchange and strengthening civil society. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, also known as the Barcelona Process, was created in 1995 as a result of the Conference of Euro-Mediterranean Ministers of Foreign Affairs held in Barcelona on 27 and 28 November under the Spanish presidency of the EU. The majority religion in Greece today is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The Eastern Roman Empire lasted nearly 1,000 years longer. [41] The French president had managed to gather in Paris all the Heads of State and Government from the 43 Euro-Mediterranean countries, with the exception of the kings of Morocco and Jordan. [56] Sectorial meetings of the Union for the Mediterranean have also been affected by Israel's handling of the Palestinian civilian population under its control. Europe is the second-smallest continent. The Renaissance, which began in the Italian city-states, was a time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th through 16th centuries. All three factors — … Transport – November 2013, Brussels (Belgium). Roman Catholicism is strong in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Economic-Financial Meeting, 7 October 2008, Luxembourg City (Luxembourg). what is a city-state? Alongside these meetings, other UfM meetings take place, especially ministerial meetings that define the Mediterranean agenda on specific issues, such as environment and climate change, the digital economy, the role of women in society, transportation or industry. They highlighted the crucial role of the Union for the Mediterranean to that effect, welcoming the work of the UfM Secretariat to help facilitate progress in regional cooperation and integration, including by promoting region-wide projects. The UfM has consolidated an action-driven methodology, with a common ambition of creating effective links between the policy dimension and its operational translation into concrete projects and initiatives on the ground to adequately address the challenges of the region and its key interrelated priorities. Portugal had already sent out many voyages of exploration. The two halves of the Roman Empire also developed different forms of Christianity. Italians earned large profits by supplying the ships that carried Crusaders to the Middle East. Enhancing political dialogue amongst the UfM members; Ensuring the contribution of UfM activities to regional stability and human development; Developing Youth Employability & Entrepreneurial Skills – Maharat MED, Promoting Financial Inclusion via Mobile Financial Services in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries, Establishment of a Regional Platform for the Development of Cultural and Creative Industries and Clusters in the Southern Mediterranean, EDILE – Economic Development through Inclusive and Local Empowerment, EMIPO – EUROMED Invest Promotion & Observatory, EMDC – Euro-Mediterranean Development Center for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Agadir SME Programme – Fostering SME competitiveness and trade in the Agadir Agreement member countries, YouMatch – "Toolbox Project": Elaboration and implementation of a demand-driven toolbox for youth-orientated, innovative labour market services in the MENA region, Organization and Coordination of the SIEMed Network: Support for Entrepreneurship Initiatives in the Mediterranean, HOMERe – High Opportunity for Mediterranean Executive Recruitment, Higher Education on Food Security and Rural Development, Three areas of EMUNI PhD Research Programmes, Eastern Mediterranean International School (EMIS), CEED GROW: Growing and Scaling Small and Medium-Sized Businesses, Forming Responsible Citizens – Promoting citizenship education to prevent school violence, particularly against girls and women, Skills for Success – Employability Skills for Women, Promoting women empowerment for inclusive and sustainable industrial development in the MENA region, Women's Right to Health – The WoRTH Project, Completion of the Central Section of the Trans-Maghreb Motorway Axis, Motorway of the Sea (MoS) Turkey-Italy-Tunisia Project, MoS OPTIMED IMPLEMENTATION – Towards a new Mediterranean Corridor: from South-Eastern to North-Western ports, UPFI Multi-Site Urban Regeneration Project in Jericho, Izmir Urban Integrated Waste Management Project, TranslogMED, capacity building activities in logistics chain, UfM Energy University by Schneider Electric, SEMed Private Renewable Energy Framework - SPREF, Capacity Building Programme on Water Integrity in the Middle East and North Africa, MED RESCP – POST RIO +20: Supporting the adoption of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and Resource Efficiencu (RE) models in the Mediterranean region, Towards a Mediterranean Water Knowledge Platform, Integrated Programme for Protection of the Lake Bizerte against Pollution, Governance & Financing for the Mediterranean Water Sector, The "Desalination Facility for the Gaza Strip" Project, PLASTIC-BUSTERS for a Mediterranean free from litter. Twenty-one human rights and humanitarian organizations issued a statement today protesting the Greek government’s move to overturn a binding court ruling which ordered the government to end its abusive policy of trapping asylum seekers on Greece’s islands. The Mediterranean region was home to the two great civilizations of ancient Europe—ancient Greece and ancient Rome. [140], At the Paris Summit it was agreed that the Anna Lindh Foundation, along with the UN Alliance of Civilizations will be in charge of the cultural dimension of the Union for the Mediterranean.[22]. [128], In contrast with the Barcelona Process, one of the biggest innovations of the Union for the Mediterranean is its institutional architecture. Industrial cooperation – February 2014, Brussels (Belgium). The ARLEM was formally established and held its first plenary session in Barcelona on 31 January 2010. [108], In January 2017, at the occasion of the second UfM Regional Forum gathering the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the 43 Member States, Ms. Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission, declared: "we have committed together to break this circle of lack of integration and tensions and conflictuality and invest in a coherent manner on more political dialogue and more regional integrational cooperation on very concrete fields of actions through our Union for the Mediterranean."[109]. During the past few years, the UfM strengthened its ties with relevant stakeholders through the signature of various Memoranda of Understanding: The Paris Declaration states that contributions for the Union for the Mediterranean will have to develop the capacity to attract funding from "the private sector participation; contributions from the EU budget and all partners; contributions from other countries, international financial institutions and regional entities; the Euro-Mediterranean Investment and Partnership Facility (FEMIP); the ENPI", among other possible instruments,[22], Union for the Mediterranean member states, Other organizations and euro-Mediterranean institutions, Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly, Euro-Mediterranean Regional and Local Assembly, Partnerships with other organizations and Euro-Mediterranean institutions. At home in Italy, unrest over inequalities led to decades of turmoil that caused Romans to seek strong leaders. Energy – December 2013, Brussels (Belgium). The EU enlargement changed the configuration of the Barcelona Process from "15+12" to "27+10. Regional co-operation has a considerable strategic impact as it deals with problems that are common to many Mediterranean Partners while it emphasises the national complementarities. [32], The proposed creation of common institutions,[39] and a Mediterranean Investment, which was to have been modelled on the European Investment Bank, was also dropped.[40]. [90], On 10–11 October 2016, the UfM Secretariat organized in Barcelona the Third High-Level Conference on Women Empowerment, which followed the 2014 and 2015 editions and in preparation of the Fourth UfM Ministerial Conference on Strengthening the Role of Women in Society, due to take place late 2017. In particular she objected to the potential use of EU funds to fund a project which was only to include a small number of EU member states. Ministers took stock of the implementation of the UfM Roadmap endorsed a year ago and committed to amplifying the impetus given to the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. The institution, through its course of actions, focuses on two main pillars: fostering human development and promoting sustainable development. The Mediterranean Studies Department stands out in Europe, as the only Department of Mediterranean Studies in Greece and one of the few in the World. The meeting of UfM Senior Officials, composed of ambassadors and senior Foreign Affairs officials appointed individually by the 43 countries of the UfM, is held several times a year, at regular intervals, at the seat of the Secretariat of UfM in Barcelona or in one of the UfM countries. It also gives them access to funding opportunities through the network of financial partners of the UfM. According to the ISN, "Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan were the only leaders from the Mediterranean countries to attend, while those of Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt were not present. The two countries merged under one government. It is the number one tourism destination in the world. These projects are expected to have an important socio-economic impact across the region, including on climate action, renewable energy, transport, urban development, water, the blue economy and environment. Choose from 500 different sets of mediterranean city states flashcards on Quizlet. [18] First, the absence of Heads of State and Government from the Southern Mediterranean countries (with the exception of the Palestinian and Turkish ones) heavily contrasted with the attendance of the 27 European Union's Heads of State and Government. section 1 mediterranean europe greece is the birthplace of democracy. It was founded on 13 July 2008 at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, with an aim of reinforcing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed) that was set up in 1995 as the Barcelona Process. Leaders of seven European countries on the Mediterranean said on Thursday they were ready to back EU sanctions against Turkey if Ankara shunned dialogue on escalating tensions in the sea. This Roadmap focuses on the following four areas of action: On 22 February 2017, the Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) and the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) signed a €6.5 million multi annual financial agreement to support UfM activities in favour of a more sustainable and inclusive development in the region. Javier Solana opened the conference by saying that they were brought together to straighten out the "clash of civilizations" and misunderstandings that there had been between them, and that it "was auspicious" that they had convened on the 900th anniversary of the First Crusade. Europe - Europe - Climate: As Francis Bacon, the great English Renaissance man of letters, aptly observed, “Every wind has its weather.” It is air mass circulation that provides the main key to Europe’s climate, the more so since masses of Atlantic Ocean origin can pass freely through the lowlands, except in the case of the Caledonian mountains of Norway. ISTANBUL (AP) — The Turkish research vessel at the heart of a Mediterranean Sea energy dispute between Turkey and Greece is back in port in an apparent bid to ease tensions ahead of a European Union summit where potential sanctions against Ankara will be … Athenian democracy helped inspire the U.S. system of government. By 2015, 14 projects were labelled by the 43 countries of the UfM, included the cleanup of Lake Bizerte in Tunisia, the construction of the desalination plant in Gaza, and the integrated urban development of the city of Imbaba. Travelling in Mediterranean Europe is pretty safe. There is no main government in Europe. But the wealth of Italy did not protect it from disease. However, its strategic position in relation to Asia and Africa, as well as navigable rivers and fertile soil, have made Europe a dominant economic, social, and cultural force throughout recorded history. This meeting concluded with a new joint declaration,[43] which completed the Paris Declaration by defining the organisational structure and the principles on which the UfM would be run. At the Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Affairs Conference held in Marseilles in November 2008, the Ministers welcomed the EU Committee of the Regions proposal to establish a Euro-Mediterranean Assembly of Local and Regional Authorities (ARLEM in French). [35] When Slovenia took the EU presidency at the beginning of 2008, the then Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša added to the criticism by saying: "We do not need a duplication of institutions, or institutions that would compete with EU, institutions that would cover part of the EU and part of the neighbourhood. France and Egypt were the first countries to hold this co-presidency. I am from the Maghreb; I am from the Mediterranean. Nearly all countries have concluded Association Agreements with the EU. To aid communication and make it possible for the army to march quickly to distant locations, Rome built a large network of well-paved roads. Three countries in Southeastern Europe have Muslim majorities. [141] This evaluation about mutual perceptions and the visibility of the Union of the Mediterranean across the region is based on a Gallup Public Opinion Survey in which 13,000 people from the Union of the Mediterranean countries participated. As well, Khader states that the Gulf War of 1991, the Algerian crisis (from 1992 onwards) and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism throughout the Arab world are also important factors in Europe's new relations with the Mediterranean countries based on security concerns. As of 2007[update], on the initiative of France, States embark on a round negotiations to revive the process. For centuries, the region's economy was based on fishing and agriculture. Industry, 5–6 November 2008, Nice (France). Euro-Mediterranean University of Slovenia (€1 million). The EMPA gathers parliamentarians from the Euro-Mediterranean countries and has four permanent committees on the following issues:[137], The EMPA also has an ad hoc committee on Energy and Environment. 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